Artificial Intelligence- Definition, Works, Importance, Types, Future


The growing popularity of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is well-known & widespread in this current tech world. Since its advent to till date, artificial intelligence integrates logic-based strategies & advanced analysis, including machine learning, to explain events, support & automate decisions & execute actions. AI technology and machine learning mainly depend on the handiness of a large volume of information. The rapid growth of the Internet, the spread of cloud computing, the availability of smart phones, and the expansion of the Internet of Things have created flexibility to produce bulk quantities of data every day.


Considering its immense significance & potentiality, this article will highlight below areas of artificial intelligence (AI):


  • Definition of artificial intelligence with examples
  • How does it works
  • The importance of artificial intelligence
  • Types of artificial intelligence

Future of artificial intelligence

Let’s dive into the full discussion:
Definition of Artificial Intelligence with Examples:

In simple terms, AI is a specialized technology that tries to empower computers to think & acts like a human.

 In a broad term, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the combination of algorithms developed with the objective of creating machines that have the same expertise as a human being.


In another word, we can say that artificial intelligence is a computerized system that displays behavior that is commonly perceived as requiring intelligence.


Moreover, Artificial Intelligence (AI) exhibits the ability of a machine or computer to mimic the capabilities of the human mind.

Finally, artificial intelligence is an intelligent entity that is highly capable of performing the task without constant supervision.


For your better understanding, here we’re sharing real-life examples of AI technologies:


  • Self-driving cars
  • Smart assistants
  • Amazon & online e-commerce
  • Pandora
  • Manufacturing Robots
  • Virtual Travel booking agent
  • Social media monitoring
  • Online banking 
  • Spam filters
  • Loan & credit card processing
  • Proactive health care management
  • Co0nversational marketing bot
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tools
  • Disease mapping

Related Readings:

How does artificial intelligence works:

As an artificial intelligence enthusiast, you need to know first how this complex system operates. Infact, it works by applying algorithms along with the component & other constraints that determine the working model toward perception, thinking & action.

Developing an artificial intelligence system needs a careful process of reverse-engineering of human characters & capabilities in the machine. It also utilizes its computational abilities to exceed human performance. AI is a broad field of study which includes many approaches, methods as well as various sub-domains. To learn about AI functions elaborately, one needs to comprehend its sub-domains first. Let’s dive into a brief discussion:

How common are personality disorders:

In the past, there was less availability of mental health services to treat mental illnesses. These services only focused on mental disorders like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia & depression. 


Previously, there are a lot of misconceptions about the efficacy of mental health services in curing mental diseases. But recently conducted a lot of research supported the arguments that the essentiality of mental health services is indispensable for treating personality disorders.


As personality disorder is deeply ingrained, the defective pattern of behaviors that usually starts in the adolescence stage & remains pervasive throughout adulthood which causes stiff emotional pain, anxiety & trauma.


It’s normally believed that the main origin of personality disorder is a combination of genetics & childhood negative experiences. 


Specifically, abusive, oppressive & neglectful behavior from parents instigates such disorder. 


As per health professionals, a personality disorder is a deep-rooted problem for a prolonged period, so its treatment can be difficult.


As per DSM-5 prescribed ten personality disorders, the four types in Cluster B, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, and Histrionic have been recognized as the most complex disorder for treatment.


Though, in recent years, several pieces of research showed that borderline & narcissistic, in particular, proved to be a good sign of recovery through treatment which was previously thought impossible. 


A scientific study conducted by Jorgensen, et al. in 2014 claimed that 75% of borderline patients displayed quality improvements after consecutive 18 months of treatments of borderline symptoms.


The symptoms of personality disorders typically persuade sufferers with this condition by the abnormal thoughts which prevent them from proper feeling & functioning. Most express their denial & rejection that they have any problem relating to their behavior & attitude which creates a complication for conducting any treatment.


However, without taking proper treatment, no personality disorder will be improved. The treatment & methodology might be different for each personality disorder. 


Normally, medications, hospitalization & psychotherapy are available for treating any personality disorder.

What are the types of personality disorders?

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) which is known as the standard guideline for treating any mental disorder has classified personality disorders into three main categories, with several subtypes of personality disorders in each category.


Let’s explore these 10 most common personality disorder types in detail:

Eccentric personality disorders:

This type of personality disorder is also known as cluster A personality disorder. Usually, this type of disorder is characterized by odd, weird & peculiar behavior.

This category includes paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.

Paranoid personality disorder:

Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a type of disorder that consists of abnormal, unusual & unfamiliar behavior displayed by the sufferer. People with PPD always remain on defense, assuming that others are always trying to belittle, harm, or attack them.


 In addition, their constant feelings of distrust & blame are found as unsupported & baseless in the most cases. These persisting habits make it harder for them to form a close relationship.


Let’s narrate common symptoms of Paranoid personality disorder (PPD):


  • Unwillingness to intimate with others or disclose personal information due to the fear that the information will be manipulated against them.
  • Unforgiving & holding grudges for a prolonged period.
  • Feeling suspicious about the commitment & loyalty of others. They always think others will use or deceive them.
  • Having anger-management issues & showing hostility towards others.
  • Super-sensitive & feeling easily heart by the slight criticism.
  • Having repeated doubt & speculation about their spouses or lovers are being unfaithful.
  • Guess unnecessary & baseless hidden meaning in the innocent statement or casual looks of others.
  • Showing stiff retaliation & anger to the perceived insult & rejection.
  • Keeping cold & distant behaviour in close relationships & displaying controlling & envious attitudes to their mates.
  • Unkind, bitter, stubborn & combative 
  • They never find any errors of them in any conflict & blame others for all mishaps.

Schizoid personality disorder

A schizoid personality disorder is quite an uncommon personality disorder that is characterized by aloofness & social withdrawal.


Though people with this type of personality remain cold in their social interaction, but they can sustain themselves quite well in society.


Schizoid personality disorder usually shows its signs since early adulthood. Its common symptoms are as follows:


  • Emotionally cold, distant & socially detached.
  • Preferring to be working alone & solitary activities.
  • Lack of motivation & unsatisfactory performance at the work & school.
  • Avoiding social mingle & interaction.
  • Seeming dull, boring, humorless & indifferent.
  • Having complexity in expressing emotions & showing the right response to any situation.
  • Have no desire to involve & enjoy any close relationship.
  • Lack of interest in the opposite sex or any sexual intercourse.
  • Experiencing trouble to relate & connect with others.

Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD)

Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) is a type of eccentric personality disorder which typically shaped by the projection of strange & unusual behavior.


The mannerism & demeanor of people with STPD may seem unfamiliar & odd to others. Generally, they have a lack of understandings of how a close or intimate relationship forms & how their action impacts others.


They may also misread the other’s intentions & loyalty & develop a suspicious attitude toward others.


People with STPD feel paranoid with the unknown anxiety which leads them to avoid social settings. In schizotypal personality disorder, people follow distorted cognition & perceptions & massive disorganization of ideas & speech create huge difficulties to mingle with others.


 Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) usually shows its symptoms in early adulthood & there is the probability that it sustains across the lifespan.


Nevertheless, by taking proper treatment, medications & therapy, situations can be improved. This disorder is most common in men than women.


Let’s discuss its main signs & symptoms:


  • Weird & peculiar thought processes & perceptions.
  • Nurture unconventional & unfamiliar beliefs. 
  • Limited emotions & inappropriate social responses.
  • Excessive & never-ending social anxiety & stress.
  • Prefer to be a loner & have no close associates outside of the immediate family.
  • Dressing in weird ways, such as displaying messy costumes or wearing oddly combinations of the dress.
  • Hold suspicious & distrustful viewpoints to others.
  • Self-absorbed with fantasy & day-dreaming.
  • Project an attitude of cold, aloof & distant.
  • Nurture abnormal beliefs or magical thinking (for instance, being overly superstitious or perceived themselves as psychic)
  • Unusual perceptions, such as sensing an absent person’s presence or making illusions.
  • Feeling hesitation with intimacy.
  • Peculiar & unfamiliar pattern of speech creates an obstacle to relating with others. 


As the signs & symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) appear during teen, this type of child may perform unsatisfactorily in their school or remain aloof to mingle with other mates who cause teasing & bullying.

Lifestyle Changes for Hypertension:

You can prevent & control your high blood pressure by making necessary changes in your lifestyle.

 You can lower your hypertension problem by below few guidelines:

  • Having a healthy diet in your daily routine. Dash diet can be the ideal diet which includes a lot of fruits & vegetables, low-fat dairy products, & less saturated & total fat.
  • Reducing weight if you’re overweight or obese.
  • Being physically active.
  • Lower your salt intake to less than 6g(0.2oz) a day, which is almost a teaspoonful.
  • Reducing alcohol intake along with other dairy drinks.
  • Quitting smoking
  • Drinking less caffeine like tea or coffee
  • Practicing aerobic exercise (such as daily brisk walk for 30 minutes)

These all steps are super-helpful for lowering your high blood pressure.

 Also, they intensify the effects of drugs on high blood pressure.

 Related readings:

Dramatic Personality Disorders:

These types of disorders are also known as Cluster B personality disorders. The major behavioral features of this type of disorder are emotional, dramatic, or erratic.

The subtypes of dramatic personality disorder are as follows:


  • Antisocial personality disorder
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Histrionic personality disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD):

A person with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often projects aggressive, violent & impulsive behaviors towards others.

People with ASPD have no consideration of their actions upon others & show their disapproval to abide by social rules & customs.

They frequently engage in verbal disputes or physical altercations with others. They also tend to involve in legal disputes & litigations quite often.

Additionally, people with ASPD exert oppressive & abusive attitudes in their interpersonal relationships & show no remorse & regret.

A few major traits of antisocial personality disorder have been stated below:

  • Behave rashly & recklessly
  • Blame others for their problem & denial of their errors.
  • Be physically violent & aggressive
  • Be deceitful & manipulative.
  • Engage in unlawful activities & actions.
  • Destroy property & being a home wrecker.
  • Express no remorse or guilt for their hurtful actions.
  • Disobedience for right & wrong
  • Being irresponsible, cynical & disrespectful towards others.
  • Repeated conflict with the law due to their consecutive & unstoppable criminal behavior.
  • Take unnecessary financial risks & endeavors without thinking about the safety of self & others.
  • Feeling an excessive sense of entitlement & superiority & being extremely judgmental towards others.
  • Being consistently irresponsible, toxic & reluctant to learn from their failures.
  • Poor & abusive relationships.
  • Engage in alcohol & substance addictions.

Borderline personality disorder

A person with a borderline personality disorder is marked with unstable moods & trouble controlling their emotions. People with BPD often experience poor self-identity, disrupted personal relationships & constant fears of abandonment.

They also display reckless & impulsive behavior such as substance abuse, sexual promiscuity, reckless driving & over-spending.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), BPD individual has below key features:

  • Risky & reckless behavior such as hasty driving, unprotected sex, gambling & spending sprees.
  • Feeling a constant sense of vague & emptiness
  • Uncontrolled emotions & poor anger management skills.
  • Rapid changes in the perception of others, such as one moment idealizing someone as perfect mate & then suddenly ending the relationship believing they are ineligible as per their expectations.
  • To resist the fear of separation & rejection, often threat of self-harm or suicidal attempt.
  • A constant fear of abandonment instigates to take extreme action to avoid real or imagined separation or rejection.
  • Unstable mood swings which may lasts a few hours to a few days, ranging from intense joy, irritability, paranoia, or anxiety.
  • Difficulty trusting others & often misreading the innocence of others.

Histrionic personality disorder:

Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is also known as Cluster B personality disorder. People with HPD have a twisted mental image of themselves. People with histrionic personality disorder exhibit extremely emotional, edgy & erratic attitudes & persona.

A person with HPD always seeking attention from others to notice & compliments them. Their low self-esteem is highly dependent upon others’ approval.

For attention-grabbing, people with Histrionic personality disorder presents themselves as charming, seductive, manipulative, flirtatious, impulsive & enthusiastic.

A person with HPD always feels to be loved by others & they may also feel vulnerable to be alone.

As few researchers mentioned in 2015 that histrionic personality disorder is one of the ambiguous diagnostic categories in mental health.

The major behavioral traits of this type of mental disorder are as follows:

  • Feeling neglected & ignored if they are not the center of attention.
  • Constantly seeking attention & acknowledgment from others.
  • To become focal point, they may act seductively or display provocative behavior.
  • Being overexcited, tense & exaggerated.
  • Self-centered.
  • Having superficial emotions & prone to shift mood rapidly.
  • To catch the attention, they follow the impressionistic style of speech which has lacked substance.
  • Their opinion is easily influenced by others.
  • They are quite risky & slippery as always questing for adventure, excitement & over-indulgence.

Usually, this type of mental disorder shows its symptoms since childhood. This type of person may be well-suited in social settings but they may also experience a high level of stress & depression.

The features of histrionic personality disorder often overlap with others & have affinity with a narcissistic personality disorder.

Moreover, the exact causes of Histrionic personality disorder are still unfamiliar. Though, scientists follow a generalized view that it is the output of genetic & environmental factors.

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a type of personality disorder in which people have inflated vision of themselves. They feel entitled to get constant attention & admiration from others.

In addition, people with NPD are often recognized as self-absorbed, prideful & lacking considerations for others.


Here, we’re discussing basic characteristics of people of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD):


  • Having overbearing nature of self-importance & egotistical.
  • Yearning for constant compliments & admiration.
  • Being exaggerated about their talents & achievements.
  • Super-sensitive to any criticism.
  • Self-absorbed with fantasies about own power, beauty & success.
  • Never hesitate to use others for their selfishness.
  • Exhibiting arrogant & boastful attitude.
  • Expect special privilege & undivided compliance with their expectations.
  • Very close-minded to give attention, love & care to others.

Anxious personality disorder:

An anxious personality disorder is a type of mental illness in which people feel extreme anxiety, nervousness & fear. This type of personality disorder is also known as Cluster C personality disorder. This type of mental ailments includes three types of personality disorders, such as:

  • Avoidant personality disorder
  • Dependent personality disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Anxious personality disorder:

An anxious personality disorder is a type of mental illness in which people feel extreme anxiety, nervousness & fear. This type of personality disorder is also known as Cluster C personality disorder. This type of mental ailments includes three types of personality disorders, such as:

  • Avoidant personality disorder
  • Dependent personality disorder
  • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD)

People with Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) avoid social interaction & networking due to having fear of rejection & being ridiculed by others.

 Individuals with Avoidant personality disorder have feelings of extreme inadequacy & inferiority along with sense themselves as unappealing & unattractive.

Typically, AvPD symptoms appear in individual due to the ugly experience of childhood negligence. A child can be neglected by one or both parents or rejected by his close peer groups. Moreover, this personality may occur without having any events of neglect or abuse as well.

Basic features of avoidant personality disorder (AvPD):

  • They have very few close friends & are reluctant to make the bond with others unless being liked extremely.
  • They are hypersensitive & easily hurt by slight criticisms & evaluations by others.
  • They feel extremely shy & nervous in intimate relationships & social atmosphere which influenced them to avoid such environment or job where being engaged with others.
  • Feeling constant anxiousness about disclosure of their secrets by others & rejection.
  • Keep them lonely & isolated as feel unworthy & inferior to others.
  • Feeling worried by the embarrassment, disapproval & ridicule by others.

Dependent personality disorder (DPD):

Dependent personality disorder (DPD) is one of the most common mental illness. These types of personality disorder are marked by the sense of helplessness, submissiveness & have less strength to take their own decision.

They have huge fear to be alone & they need constant care by others. They are dependent on others for support, advice, motivation, encouragement & comfort.

But with the support & guideline, this type of people can learn gradually how to be self-sufficient & self-confident.

The basic symptoms of dependent personality disorder (DPD) have depicted below:


  • Feeling scared being alone.
  • Lack of confidence & faith to make own decision.
  • Oversensitivity to others’ criticism.
  • Need repeated counseling & affirmation to make them understand.
  • Feeling panic in face of disapproval & rejection.
  • Behave submissively & clingy.
  • Avoidance technique to complete personal responsibility.
  • They always feel an urgency to start a new relationship once the other has ended.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD):

By nature, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is different from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which defines a type of behavior rather than a personality category. But both disorders foster outside similarities, such as rigid & ritual-like behaviors.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a mental illness characterized by excessive perfectionism, rigorousness, order & neatness.

Typically, OCPD symptoms start during adulthood & are manifest in various aspects of their life. It’s considered that both genetic & environmental factors are associated causes of OCPD.

Key traits of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) have been shared below:

  • Extreme sense of perfectionism causes complexity to complete any task or project due to expecting the unrealistic standard to achieve.
  • Feeling hardship to express any emotions.
  • Excessive nitpicking about details, rules, procedures, order, values, or schedule that the core purpose of the activity is diminished.
  • Overly workaholic nature deprived them to enjoy leisure & entertainment activities. (Keeping busy in task or work is not just the reason of financial necessity)
  • Highly upright, thorough, meticulous & inflexible about matters of ethics, morality & values which aren’t formed by any religious & cultural entity.
  • They consider themselves high-minded, principled & angry.
  • Follow a miserly attitude for own self & others.
  • They follow overly rigidity & inflexibility in their lifestyle.
  • Due to their conservative nature often experience social isolation.

Final thought:

After discussing the 10 most common personality disorders, we can say that by adopting proper diagnosis & treatment, people can lead normal & fulfilling life. Doctors will follow DSM-5 guidelines for exact mental disorder identification.

Often people with personality disorder express their outright denial of having any mental disorder complications within them until it impacts severely their work, career, school & personal life. In addition, depression, stress, anxiety & other mental health ailments can arise with the existing personality disorder. Hence, the sufferer should seek mental health professional help without making any delay.